معرفی اساتید مدیریت دولتی-هربرت سایمون (Herbert A. Simon)

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معرفی اساتید مدیریت دولتی

هربرت سایمون (Herbert A. Simon)

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل زندگینامه استاد،کلیک کنید

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(۱۹۱۶-۲۰۰۱)Herbert A. Simon

Carnegie Mellon University Professor

تهیه کننده: آرزو سهرابی[۱]

دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی دانشگاه تهران

[۱] Arezoo_sohrabi@ut.ac.ir


هربرت سایمون

هربرت­سایمون، در سال ۱۹۱۶ در میلواکی، ویسکانسیت آمریکا متولد شد. سایمون یکی از معتبرترین دانشمندان علوم اجتماعی قرن بیستم درخصوص تئوری سازمان، هوش مصنوعی، حل مسأله، فرآیند تصمیم­گیری، علوم شناختی و سیستم­های پیچیده است و در سال ۱۹۷۸ جایزه نوبل اقتصاد را برای کار خود در عقلانیت محدود کسب کرد. کارشناسی و دکتری خود را در دانشگاه شیکاگو در رشته علوم سیاسی گذارند. از ۱۹۴۹ تا ۲۰۰۱ استاد دانشگاه کارنگی­ملون[۱] بود. زمینه­های فعالیتش بیشتر هوش مصنوعی، روانشناسی شناختی، علوم کامپیوتر، اقتصاد و علوم سیاسی بود.

[۱] Carnegie Mellon


از مهم­ترین جوایز کسب شده دکتر سایمون به شرح زیر است:

  • Turing Award (1975)
  • Nobel Prize in Economics (1978)
  • National Medal of Science (1986)
  • Harold Pender Award (1987)
  • von Neumann Theory Prize (1988)
  • APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology (1969)
  • APA Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (1993)
  • ACM Fellow (1994)
  • IJCAI Award for Research Excellence (1995)

فهرستي از مهم­ترين كتب سایمون به شرح زير است:

  • Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Simon, H. A. (2013). Administrative behavior. Simon and Schuster.
  • Simon, H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial. MIT press.
  • Simon, H. A. (1982). Models of bounded rationality: Empirically grounded economic reason . MIT press.
  • Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (2007). Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search (p. 1975). ACM.
  • Simon, H. (1990). Reason in human affairs. Stanford University Press.
  • Simon, H. A. (2012). Models of discovery: And other topics in the methods of science (Vol. 54). Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
  • Simon, H. A., & Kaplan, C. A. (1989). Foundations of cognitive science. MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Simon, H., & March, J. G. (1958). Organization. NY: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1961). Computer simulation of human thinking. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.

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از مقالات مهم سایمون مي­توان به مقالات زير اشاره كرد:

  • Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. The quarterly journal of economics, 69(1), 99-118.
  • Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological review, 87(3), 215.
  • Simon, H. A. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological review, 63(2), 129.
  • Simon, H. A. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization science, 2(1), 125-134.
  • Larkin, J. H., & Simon, H. A. (1987). Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words. Cognitive science, 11(1), 65-100.
  • Simon, H. A. (1959). Theories of decision-making in economics and behavioral science. The American economic review, 49(3), 253-283.
  • Simon, H. A. (1979). Rational decision making in business organizations. The American economic review, 69(4), 493-513.
  • Simon, H. A. (1978). Rationality as process and as product of thought. The American economic review, 1-16.
  • Simon, H. A. (1973). The structure of ill structured problems. Artificial intelligence, 4(3-4), 181-201.
  • Larkin, J., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Expert and novice performance in solving physics problems. Science, 208(4450), 1335-1342.
  • Simon, H. A. (1991). Organizations and markets. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(2), 25-44.
  • Simon, H. A. (1972). Theories of bounded rationality. Decision and organization, 1(1), 161-176.
  • Simon, H. A. (1967). Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychological review, 74(1), 29.
  • Simon, H. A. (1951). A formal theory of the employment relationship. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 293-305.
  • Simon, H. A. (1951). A formal theory of the employment relationship. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 293-305.
  • Simon, H. A. (1990). Invariants of human behavior. Annual review of psychology, 41(1), 1-20.
  • Simon, H. A. (1974). How big is a chunk?. Science, 183(4124), 482-488.
  • Dearborn, D. C., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Selective perception: A note on the departmental identifications of executives. Sociometry, 21(2), 140-144.
  • Simon, H. A. (1985). Human nature in politics: The dialogue of psychology with political science. American Political Science Review, 79(2), 293-304.
  • Simon, H. A. (1985). Human nature in politics: The dialogue of psychology with political science. American Political Science Review, 79(2), 293-304.
  • Newell, A., Shaw, J. C., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Elements of a theory of human problem solving. Psychological review, 65(3), 151.
  • Simon, H. A. (1986). Rationality in psychology and economics. Journal of Business, S209-S224.
  • Simon, H. A. (1987). Making management decisions: The role of intuition and emotion. The Academy of Management Executive (1987-1989), 57-64.
  • Simon, H., & Chase, W. (1988). Skill in chess. In Computer chess compendium (pp. 175-188). Springer New York.
  • Simon, H. A. (1964). On the concept of organizational goal. Administrative science quarterly, 1-22.
  • Simon, H. A., & Bonini, C. P. (1958). The size distribution of business firms. The American economic review, 48(4), 607-617.
  • Simon, H. A. (1975). The functional equivalence of problem solving skills. Cognitive Psychology, 7(2), 268-288.
  • Anzai, Y., & Simon, H. A. (1979). The theory of learning by doing. Psychological review, 86(2), 124.
  • Simon, H. A. (1990). A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism. Science(Washington), 250(4988), 1665-1668.
  • Simon, H. A. (1946). The proverbs of administration. Public Administration Review, 6(1), 53-67.
  • Kaplan, C. A., & Simon, H. A. (1990). In search of insight. Cognitive psychology, 22(3), 374-419.
  • Simon, H. A., & Ando, A. (1961). Aggregation of variables in dynamic systems. Econometrica: journal of the Econometric Society, 111-138.
  • Simon, H. A., & Newell, A. (1958). Heuristic problem solving: The next advance in operations research. Operations research, 6(1), 1-10.
  • Larkin, J. H., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P., & Simon, H. A. (1980). Models of competence in solving physics problems. Cognitive science, 4(4), 317-345.
  • Simon, H. A. (1956). Dynamic programming under uncertainty with a quadratic criterion function. Econometrica, Journal of the Econometric Society, 74-81.
  • Simon, H. A. (1979). Information processing models of cognition. Annual review of psychology, 30(1), 363-396.
  • Sarasvathy, D. K., Simon, H. A., & Lave, L. (1998). Perceiving and managing business risks: Differences between entrepreneurs and bankers. Journal of economic behavior & organization, 33(2), 207-225.
  • Simon, H. A., & Gilmartin, K. (1973). A simulation of memory for chess positions. Cognitive psychology, 5(1), 29-46.
  • Cyert, R. M., Simon, H. A., & Trow, D. B. (1956). Observation of a business decision. The Journal of Business, 29(4), 237-248.
  • Hawkins, D., & Simon, H. A. (1949). Note: some conditions of macroeconomic stability. Econometrica, Journal of the Econometric Society, 245-248.
  • Iwasaki, Y., & Simon, H. A. (1986). Causality in device behavior. Artificial intelligence, 29(1), 3-32.
  • Simon, H. A., Dantzig, G. B., Hogarth, R., Plott, C. R., Raiffa, H., Schelling, T. C., … & Winter, S. (1987). Decision making and problem solving. Interfaces, 17(5), 11-31.
  • Simon, H. A. (1957). The compensation of executives. Sociometry, 20(1), 32-35.
  • Simon, H. A. (1973). Applying information technology to organization design. Public Administration Review, 33(3), 268-278.
  • Kulkarni, D., & Simon, H. A. (1988). The processes of scientific discovery: The strategy of experimentation. Cognitive science, 12(2), 139-175.
  • Guetzkow, H., & Simon, H. A. (1955). The impact of certain communication nets upon organization and performance in task-oriented groups. Management science, 1(3-4), 233-250.
  • Holt, C. C., Modigliani, F., & Simon, H. A. (1955). A linear decision rule for production and employment scheduling. Management Science, 2(1), 1-30.
  • Okada, T., & Simon, H. A. (1997). Collaborative discovery in a scientific domain. Cognitive science, 21(2), 109-146.
  • Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1998). How to study thinking in everyday life: Contrasting think-aloud protocols with descriptions and explanations of thinking. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 5(3), 178-186.
  • Simon, H. A., & Newell, A. (1971). Human problem solving: The state of the theory in 1970. American Psychologist, 26(2), 145.
  • Simon, H. A. (1992). What is an “explanation” of behavior?. Psychological science, 3(3), 150-161.
  • Prietula, M. J., & Simon, H. A. (1989). The experts in your midst. Harvard Business Review, 67(1), 120-124.
  • Simon, H. A. (1953). Notes on the observation and measurement of political power. The Journal of Politics, 15(4), 500-516.
  • Simon, H. A. (1977). Scientific discovery and the psychology of problem solving. In Models of discovery (pp. 286-303). Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Simon, H. A. (1993). Strategy and organizational evolution. Strategic Management Journal, 14(S2), 131-142.
  • Ijiri, Y., & Simon, H. A. (1964). Business firm growth and size. The American Economic Review, 77-89.
  • Simon, H. A. (2000). Bounded rationality in social science: Today and tomorrow. Mind & Society, 1(1), 25-39.
  • Simon, H. A. (1995). Rationality in political behavior. Political psychology, 45-61.
  • Simon, H. A. (1990). Alternative visions of rationality. Rationality in action: Contemporary approaches, 189-204.
  • Simon, H. A. (1984). On the behavioral and rational foundations of economic dynamics. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 5(1), 35-55.
  • Simon, H. A. (1967). The business school a problem in organizational design. Journal of Management Studies, 4(1), 1-16.
  • Kotovsky, K., & Simon, H. A. (1990). What makes some problems really hard: Explorations in the problem space of difficulty. Cognitive psychology, 22(2), 143-183.
  • Simon, H. A., & Reed, S. K. (1976). Modeling strategy shifts in a problem-solving task. Cognitive Psychology, 8(1), 86-97.
  • Simon, H. A. (1990). Prediction and prescription in systems modeling. Operations Research, 38(1), 7-14.
  • Simon, H. A. (1952). A formal theory of interaction in social groups. American Sociological Review, 17(2), 202-211.

 

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برخی از معروف‌ترین نقل‌قول‌های سایمون شامل:

 

  • “A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.”
  • “Anything that gives us new knowledge gives us an opportunity to be more rational.”
  • “By 1985, machines will be capable of doing any work Man can do.”
  • “Creativity is no less challenging or exciting when the mystery is stripped from the creative process. The most beautiful flowers grow under careful cultivation from common soil.”
  • “Engineering, medicine, business, architecture and painting are concerned not with the necessary but with the contingent – not with how things are but with how they might be – in short, with design.”
  • “Enlightenments, like accidents, happen only to prepared minds.”
  • “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones.”
  • “Human beings know a lot of things, some of which are true, and apply them. When we like the results, we call it wisdom.”
  • “Human knowledge has been changing from the word go and people in certain respects behave more rationally than they did when they didn’t have it. They spend less time doing rain dances and more time seeding clouds.”
  • “I don’t care how big and fast computers are, they’re not as big and fast as the world.”
  • “Innovation has a lot to do with your ability to recognize surprising and unusual phenomena.”
  • “Learning is any change in a system that produces a more or less permanent change in its capacity for adapting to its environment.”
  • “Learning results from what the student does and thinks, and only from what the student does and thinks. The teacher can advance learning only by influencing the student to learn.”
  • “Mathematics is a language. We want scientists to be able to read it, speak it, and write it. But we are are not training them to be grammarians.”
  • “One finds limits by pushing them.”
  • “One of the first rules of science is if somebody delivers a secret weapon to you, you better use it.”
  • “Solving a problem simply means representing it so as to make the solution transparent.”
  • “The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how things ought to be – how they ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function.”
  • “The intelligent altruists, though less altruistic than unintelligent altruists, will be fitter than both unintelligent altruists and selfish individuals.”
  • “The proper study of mankind is the science of design.”
  • “The simplest scheme of evolution is one that depends on two processes; a generator and a test. ”
  • “The situation has provided a cue; this cue has given the expert access to information stored in memory, and the information provides the answer. Intuition is nothing more and nothing less than recognition.”
  • “The social sciences, I thought, needed the same kind of rigor and the same mathematical underpinnings that had made the ‘hard’ sciences so brilliantly successful.”
  • “The task of the generator is to produce variety, new forms that have not existed previously, whereas the task of the test is to cull out the newly generated forms so that only those that are well fitted to the environment will survive.”
  • “The world is vast, beautiful, and fascinating, even awe-inspiring – but impersonal. It demands nothing of me, and allows me to demand nothing of it.”
  • “Think of the design process as involving first the generation of alternatives and then the testing of these alternatives against a whole array of requirements and restraints.”

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مقالات استاد:

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Why public administration،کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله  STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله  Rationality Gone Awry Decisionکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Organizations and Markets کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله What we know about learning کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله  NOTE SOME CONDITIONS OF MACROکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Information Processing Models کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Human and Machine Interpretati کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله  DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Creativity_in_the arts and the sciences کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله CAUSALITY AND ECONOMETRICS COMMENT کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Bounded rationality in_social Today and Tomorrowکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله AGGREGATION OF VARIABLES IN DYDYNAMIC SYSTEMSکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله A study of how individuals solve complex and ill structured problemsکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله A MODEL OF BUSINESS FIRM GROWT کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله A Mechanism for Social Selectiion and Successful Altruismکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله  Programs as Factors of Product کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله ON THE APPLICATION OF SERVOMEC کلیک کنید

جهت  دریافت نسخه الکترونیکی فایل مقاله Altruism and economicsکلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه  الکترونیکی فایل کتاب Reason in Human Affairs کلیک کنید

جهت دریافت نسخه  الکترونیکی فایل کتاب THE NEW SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT DECISION کلیک کنید

 

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